cultural institutions. 20 As the high-ranking Nazi official Erich Koch explained, "We must do everything possible so that when a Pole meets a Ukrainian, he will be willing to kill the Ukrainian and conversely, the Ukrainian will be willing to kill the Pole." 21 Plunder edit Germans. 106 Visual arts and music edit With the censorship of Polish theater (and the virtual end of the Polish radio and film industry 108 underground theaters were created, primarily in Warsaw and Kraków, with shows presented in various underground venues. Nevertheless, underground organizations and individuals in particular the. There were over 1,000 underground newspapers; 98 among the most important were the Biuletyn Informacyjny of Armia Krajowa and Rzeczpospolita of the Government Delegation for Poland. 9 39 42 By late 1940, no official Polish educational institutions more advanced than a vocational school remained in operation, and they offered nothing beyond the elementary trade and technical training required for the Nazi economy. 235 Salmonowicz 1994,. . Moreover, the Polish schools are closed during at least five months out of the ten months of the school year due to lack of coal or other fuel. (in Polish) Kolekcja zdjęć Eugeniusza Lokajskiego, Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego, Sylwester 'Kris' Braun. 60 Hitler and Stalin shared the goal of obliterating Poland's political and cultural life, so that Poland would, according to historian Niall Ferguson, "cease to exist not merely as a place, but also as an idea". All institutions of the dismantled Polish state, including the Lwów University, were closed, then reopened, mostly with new Russian directors. 99 The Polish underground also published booklets and leaflets from imaginary anti-Nazi German organizations aimed at spreading disinformation and lowering morale among the Germans. 4 The Soviet authorities regarded service to the prewar Polish state as a "crime against revolution" 61 and "counter-revolutionary activity" 62 and arrested many members of the Polish intelligentsia, politicians, civil kåte norske jenter sexhistorier servants and academics, as well as ordinary persons suspected of posing a threat. 49 Novels and anthologies were published by underground presses; over 1,000 works were published underground over the course of the war. Similarly, Aleksander Wat, initially sympathetic to communism, was arrested by the Soviet nkvd secret police and exiled to Kazakhstan. 72 Polish cultural activities in Minsk and Wilno were less organized. 38 44 The new educational aims for Poles included convincing them that their national fate was hopeless, and teaching them to be submissive and respectful to Germans. 41 A German police memorandum of August 1943 described the situation as follows: Pupils sit crammed together without necessary materials, and often without skilled teaching staff. 49 Other important patrons of Polish culture included the Roman Catholic Church and Polish aristocrats, who likewise supported artists and safeguarded Polish heritage (notable patrons included Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha and a former politician, Janusz Radziwił ). Retrieved on b Madajczyk 1970,. . 125 Madajczyk 1970,. . 115 Polish underground artists included Eryk Lipiński, Stanisław Miedza-Tomaszewski, Stanisław Ostoja-Chrostowski, and Konstanty Maria Sopoćko. 49 Some private publishers, including Stefan Kamieński, Zbigniew Mitzner and the Ossolineum publishing house, paid writers for books that would be delivered after the war. Polish historian Tomasz Szarota wrote in 1996: Educational and training programs place special emphasis on the World War II period and on the occupation. 10 Ironically, restrictions on cultural performances were eased in Jewish ghettos, given that the Germans wished to distract ghetto inhabitants and prevent them from grasping their eventual fate. Initial efforts were directed towards creating a negative image of pre-war Poland, 18 and later efforts were aimed at fostering anti-Soviet, antisemitic, and pro-German attitudes. 10 57 The few Polish films permitted to be shown (about 20 of the total programming) were edited to eliminate references to Polish national symbols as well as Jewish actors and producers. Google Print,.122123 a b Salmonowicz 1994,. . 142148 a b c d e Madajczyk 1970,. . 26 Destruction edit See also: List of Polish cities damaged in World War II Many places of learning and cultureuniversities, schools, libraries, museums, theaters and cinemaswere either closed or designated as " Nur für Deutsche " (For Germans Only). 11 German propaganda specialists invited critics from neutral countries to specially organized "Polish" performances that were specifically designed to be boring or pornographic, and presented them as typical Polish cultural activities. 133134 a b c d e f g Madajczyk 1970,. . 106 Writers wrote about the difficult conditions in the prisoner-of-war camps ( Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński, Stefan Flukowski, Leon Kruczkowski, Andrzej Nowicki and Marian Piechała the ghettos, and even from inside the concentration camps ( Jan Maria Gisges, Halina Gołczowa, Zofia Górska (Romanowiczowa), Tadeusz Hołuj, Kazimierz. 222 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 225 Salmonowicz 1994,. . Polish Underground Movement (19391945) Study Trust (pumst).
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|Morsomme tegneserier linni meister naked||Over the years, nearly three-quarters of the Polish people have emphasized the importance of World War II to the Polish national identity. A b (in Polish)Likowska, Ewa (2001). 18 Soviet occupation edit See also: Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (19391946) After the Soviet invasion of Poland (beginning 17 September 1939) that followed the German invasion that had marked the start of World War II (beginning 1 September 1939 the Soviet Union annexed the. Totalt in: 45760 Totalt ut: 67172. 22 23 Countless art objects were looted and taken to Germany, in line with a plan that had been drawn up well in advance of the invasion. Google Print,.57 a b c d Salmonowicz 1994,. . 4, the occupiers looted and destroyed much of Poland's cultural and historical heritage, while persecuting and murdering members of the Polish cultural elite.|
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